Smoke was seen rising from the Dmitrievsky Chemical Plant, near the border with Ukraine, on Thursday afternoon.
The Kineshma facility, which is east of the capital, produces the bulk of Russia’s industrial solvent supply.
Reports suggest over 150 people were evacuated.
This blaze follows an earlier fire that killed seven people in a Russian Ministry of Defence building in Tver.
The facility, to the west of Moscow, saw 25 injured as the roof collapsed.
A number of military scientists leapt from windows in the space and weapons institute.
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